Strand II
Reflect on the Nature, Adequacy, and Connections Across Scientific Knowledge


Science/Strand II
Content Standard 1
All students will analyze claims for their scientific merit and explain how scientists decide what constitutes scientific knowledge; how science is related to other ways of knowing; how science and technology affect our society; and how people of diverse cultures have contributed to and influenced developments in science. (Reflecting on Scientific Knowledge)


Science/Strand II/Content Standard 1
Middle School


Science/Strand II/Content Standard 1/Middle School
Benchmark 1
Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of claims, arguments, or data.

Benchmark Clarification

Claims are formulated through observation, sampling, data collection and analysis. Students will infer and observe in order to evaluate data. Students will examine strengths and weaknesses of observations, data collection, inferences, and explanations, and will dispute claims presented by a variety of media (e.g. videos, graphs, newspaper articles, Internet, textbooks, etc.).

Key Concept / Real World Context / Resources


Science/Strand II/Content Standard 1/Middle School/Benchmark 1
Key Concept
Aspects of arguments such as data, evidence, sampling, alternate explanation, conclusion, inference, and observation.


Science/Strand II/Content Standard 1/Middle School/Benchmark 1
Real World Context
Deciding between alternate explanations or plans for solving problems; evaluating advertising claims or cases made by interest groups; evaluating sources or references.


Science/Strand II/Content Standard 1/Middle School/Benchmark 1