Science
Strand V
Use Scientific Knowledge from the Earth and Space Sciences in Real-World Contexts

 

Science/Strand V
Content Standard 2
All students will describe the characteristics of water and demonstrate where water is found on Earth; describe how water moves; and analyze the interaction of human activities with the hydrosphere. (Hydrosphere)

 

Science/Strand V/Content Standard 2
Middle School

 

Science/Strand V/Content Standard 2/Middle School
Benchmark 3
Explain how water exists below the Earth’s surface and how it is replenished.

Benchmark Clarification

Precipitation can filter through the layers of the Earth and create groundwater, one type of useable water resource.

Students will:

  • Illustrate how groundwater accumulates and forms the water table
  • Explain how groundwater is replenished

Key Concept / Real World Context / Instructional Example / Assessment Example / Resources

 

Science/Strand V/Content Standard 2/Middle School/Benchmark 3
Key Concept
Groundwater:

  • water table
  • spring
  • porous
  • saturate
  • filtration

Sources:

  • snowmelt
  • rainfall

 

Science/Strand V/Content Standard 2/Middle School/Benchmark 3
Real World Context
Examples of groundwater, including springs, artesian wells, seeps, and water soaking into the ground

 

Science/Strand V/Content Standard 2/Middle School/Benchmark 3
Instructional Example

Benchmark Question: Where is water found on Earth and what are its characteristics?

Focus Question: How does groundwater move below the Earth’s surface?

Note: Prior to this activity, the teacher may want to construct a model of groundwater using an aquarium. Workshops are available through the Michigan State University Cooperative Extension Service Groundwater Education Program.

Students will observe and interpret diagrams showing the direction of movement of groundwater and some of its sources. Students will develop their own diagrams that replicate this movement. Student diagrams might include the following:

  • Sources of groundwater (lakes, rivers, etc.)
  • Aquifers — Earth materials that contain groundwater and permit its flow (sandstone, sandy soil)
  • Aquatards — Earth materials that prevent the easy flow of liquids (granite, clay)

Students will place samples of these materials (sandstone, types of soil, pebbles) or materials that represent natural Earth materials in a clear container and slowly pour water over the materials. Students will describe the movement of water through each material and record their observations. Students will compare the movement of water through each material and relate these observations to real-world phenomena. They will consider filtration, permeability.

Once diagrams are complete, students will write an essay that describes their diagrams and explains how and why movement takes place. Students will receive feedback from peers as they compare and share their essays.

Constructing: (SCI.I.1.MS.2), (SCI.I.1.MS.3), (SCI.I.1.MS.4).

Reflecting: (SCI.II.1.MS.5)

 

Science/Strand V/Content Standard 2/Middle School/Benchmark 3
Assessment Example

Working in small groups, students will design and create three-dimensional models that show movement of groundwater. Students will provide written explanations of their designs and models as they relate to the real world. These models should be based on the diagrams developed by the students and may include household materials such as foam rubber, cereal, etc. or natural Earth materials.

(Give students rubric before activity.)

Scoring Rubric

Criteria

Apprentice

Basic

Meets

Exceeds

Construction of groundwater model

Attempts to build a working model.

Produces a working model that shows water movement without labeling.

Produces a working model that correctly labels and demonstrates the movement of water.

Produces a working model that replicates two or more pathways that water takes. The model demonstrates and correctly labels those pathways.

Completeness of explanation

Provides an incomplete explanation of the model and does not demonstrate how it works or show how the model connects to the Real-World Context.

Provides a complete explanation of the model and does not demonstrate how it works or show how the model connects to the Real-World Context.

Provides a complete explanation of the model and demonstrates how it works, connecting the model to the Real-World Context.

Provides a complete explanation of the model and demonstrates how it works, connecting the model to the Real-World Context.

 

Science/Strand V/Content Standard 2/Middle School/Benchmark 3
Resources

Webliography.
http://mtn.merit.edu/mcf/SCI.V.2.MS.3.html

Groundwater Basics — Information on the benefits from groundwater and ways to conserve and protect it.
http://www.groundwater.org/GWBasics/gwbasics.htm

Ground water Primer — If you have any questions about ground water and what you can do to help protect it, chances are you'll find an answer here.
http://www.epa.gov/students/ground_water_primer.htm

Healthy Lawns for Healthy People -An environmental education curriculum for upper elementary and middle school consisting of activities and educational handouts targeting groundwater preservation and related topics. For a free copy of the curriculum guide write: Healthy People, Healthy Oakland Organization, 1200 North Telegraph, Pontiac 48336, or phone: 248-452-9174

Acid Rain. GEMS.
http://www.lhs.berkeley.edu/GEMS/

Crowder, Jane. Water Matters- Volume 2- Navigation, Groundwater and Water Quality. NSTA, 1997.

Groundwater Education Manual & Model. MSU Extension Service.

Wright, Russell. Toxic Leak! GROUNDWATER MODULE. NSTA, 1996.