Science
Strand IV
Use Scientific Knowledge from the Physical Sciences in Real-World Contexts

 

Science/Strand IV
Content Standard 2
All students will investigate, describe, and analyze ways in which matter changes; describe how living things and human technology change matter and transform energy; explain how visible changes in matter are related to atoms and molecules; and how changes in matter are related to changes in energy. (Changes in Matter)

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 2
Middle School

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 2/Middle School
Benchmark 4
Describe common energy transformations in everyday situations.

Benchmark Clarification

Students need to recognize that energy is never lost, destroyed, or created; it only changes form. In each transformation, the amount of energy that goes into a system is the same as the amount of energy that comes out of the system. When a system is analyzed, scientists must account for all types of energy. In most systems, energy is given off as heat.

Appliances, the body, plants, vehicles, musical instruments, toys, cold packs, hand warmers, etc. are examples of systems. In each system, energy changes form. For example, a battery demonstrates chemical energy being transformed to electrical energy.

Students will:

*Describe the energy transformations in everyday systems.

See Electricity in circuits, (SCI.IV.1.MS.5).

See (SCI.III.2.MS.3) and (SCI.III.5.MS.2).

Key Concept / Real World Context / Instructional Example / Assessment Example / Resources

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 2/Middle School/Benchmark 4
Key Concept

  • Forms of energy:
  • mechanical
  • heat
  • sound
  • light
  • electrical
  • magnetic
  • chemical
  • food energy

Total amount of energy remains constant in all transformations

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 2/Middle School/Benchmark 4
Real World Context

  • motors
  • generators
  • power plants
  • light bulbs
  • appliances
  • cars
  • radios
  • TVs
  • walking
  • playing a musical instrument
  • cooking food
  • batteries
  • body heat
  • photosynthesis

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 2/Middle School/Benchmark 4
Instructional Example

Benchmark Question: How are common energy transformations used in everyday situations?

Focus Question: What kinds of energy transfers occur in various toys?

Before beginning the explorations, students should be familiar with energy and its forms (see Key Concepts). Also, the teacher should discuss everyday examples of energy transformations (burning coal to produce electricity, digestion of food, speakers, photosynthesis, etc.).

The teacher will give each small group a toy that undergoes one or more energy transfers (See Toy Examples below). Groups will investigate the mechanics of their toy and identify its energy transfers. Groups will demonstrate and explain how the types of energy change in their toy.

Toy Examples: tops, music boxes, Jack-in-the-Boxes, wind-up toys, push and pull toys, string-pull toys, and battery-operated toys.

Constructing: (SCI.I.1.MS.1), (SCI.I.1.MS.6).

Reflecting: (SCI.II.1.MS.3).

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 2/Middle School/Benchmark 4
Assessment Example

After students have investigated various energy transformations, the following assessment can be used:

Pairs of students will observe the energy transformation that occurs when 250 ml (one-half cup) of cold water is combined with fifteen grams (one teaspoon) of calcium chloride in a locking sandwich bag. Each student will write a description of the energy transformation that is occurring and a description of a real-world application.

(Give students rubric before activity.)

Scoring Rubric

Criteria

Apprentice

Basic

Meets

Exceeds

Accuracy of description energy transformation

Describes an observation that does not include an energy transformation.

Describes the energy transformation with no details.

Describes the energy transformation with some details.

Describes the energy transformation with many details.

Accuracy of Description-real-world application

Does not describe a real-world application.

Describes a real-world application with no details.

Describes a real-world application with some details.

Describes a real-world application with many details.

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 2/Middle School/Benchmark 4
Resources

Webliography.
http://mtn.merit.edu/mcf/SCI.IV.2.MS.4.html

Inventions/Computers. Bill Nye Video. Disney Educational (800/295-5010).

Taylor, Beverley. Teaching Science with Toys: Physics Activities for Grades K-9. McGraw Hill, 1995.

Power Company.
http://www.consumersenergy.com/