Science
Strand IV
Use Scientific Knowledge from the Physical Sciences in Real-World Contexts

 

Science/Strand IV
Content Standard 4
All students will describe sounds and sound waves; explain shadows, color, and other light phenomena; measure and describe vibrations and waves; and explain how waves and vibrations transfer energy. (Waves and Vibrations)

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4
Middle School

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/Middle School
Benchmark 5
Describe the motion of vibrating objects.

Benchmark Clarification

The motion of vibrating objects may be described by using the following terms:

For example, the motion of a tuning fork can be described in the following way:

One vibration of the tines represents the period. The more vibrations the tines of the tuning fork make during a certain time period, the higher the frequency. The harder the tuning fork is struck, the higher the amplitude will be. This can be heard by an increase in loudness or volume with no change in pitch.

Students will:

Key Concept / Real World Context / Instructional Example / Assessment Example / Resources

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/Middle School/Benchmark 5
Key Concept

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/Middle School/Benchmark 5
Real World Context
Vibrating or oscillating objects:

  • weights on springs
  • vocal cords
  • tuning forks
  • guitar strings

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/Middle School/Benchmark 5
Instructional Example

Benchmark Question: How may the motion of vibrating objects be described by frequency, period, and amplitude?

Focus Question: How is the motion of vibrating objects related to sound?

Students will work in small groups to design and conduct an investigation that answers the Focus Question.

Each student will write a hypothesis before beginning the investigation. Then students will follow these procedures:

1. Stretch a rubber band tightly around three nails in a board.

2. Hang several small strips of paper, creased in half, over one section of the rubber band.

3. Pluck the section.

4. Observe how the paper strips move.

5. Measure how long a guitar string vibrates after it can no longer be heard.

Each student will write a lab report describing the investigation.

Extension: Give students various toys that make sound. Have them investigate the differences in pitch and loudness and how they can be changed. Similarly, strips can be placed over the different strings of string instruments.

Constructing: (SCI.I.1.MS.1), (SCI.I.1.MS.3).

Reflecting: (SCI.II.1.MS.2).

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/Middle School/Benchmark 5
Assessment Example

The teacher will give students pictures of sound waves produced by an oscilloscope or diagrams of sound waves that represent different sounds. Each student will write responses to the following questions on frequency, period, and amplitude:

1. Which wave was produced by the object with the longest period? How do you know?

2. Which wave had the greatest amplitude? How do you know?

3. Which wave was produced by the object with the highest frequency? How do you know?

4. Which wave produced the highest pitched sound? Why?

(Give students rubric before activity.)

Scoring Rubric

Criteria

Apprentice

Basic

Meets

Exceeds

Correctness of identification

Identifies one picture correctly.

Identifies two pictures correctly.

Identifies three pictures correctly.

Identifies four pictures correctly.

Accuracy of explanation

Writes one correct conclusion based on incorrect or no information.

Writes two correct conclusions based on some correct information.

Write three to four correct conclusions based on some correct information.

Writes five to six correct conclusions based on all correct information.

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/Middle School/Benchmark 5
Resources

Webliography.
http://mtn.merit.edu/mcf/SCI.IV.4.MS.4.html

Hisorical Connections.AIMS.
http://wwws.aimsedu.org/aimscatalog/default.tpl

Popping With Power. AIMS.
http://wwws.aimsedu.org/aimscatalog/default.tpl

Waves/Wind. Bill Nye Video. Disney Educational (800/295-5010).