Science
Strand IV
Use Scientific Knowledge from the Physical Sciences in Real-World Contexts

 

Science/Strand IV
Content Standard 4
All students will describe sounds and sound waves; explain shadows, color, and other light phenomena; measure and describe vibrations and waves; and explain how waves and vibrations transfer energy. (Waves and Vibrations)

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4
Middle School

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/Middle School
Benchmark 6
Explain how mechanical waves transfer energy.

Benchmark Clarification

Energy is transferred in mechanical waves via a medium (e.g., slinky, water waves, the EarthÕs crust as a result of an earthquake) when molecules of matter bump into each other and transfer their energy. Matter interacts with energy by absorption, transmission, or reflection.

Students will:

  • Identify a mechanical wave

Explain how a mechanical wave transfers energy.

See Electrical Circuits Transfer Electrical Energy, (SCI.IV.1.MS.6).

Key Concept / Real World Context / Instructional Example / Assessment Example / Resources

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/Middle School/Benchmark 6
Key Concept

  • sound energy
  • absorption
  • transmission
  • reflection

Media:

  • air
  • solids
  • water

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/Middle School/Benchmark 6
Real World Context
Waves in slinkies and long springs:

  • sound waves
  • water waves
  • earthquakes

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/Middle School/Benchmark 6
Instructional Example

Benchmark Question: How do mechanical waves transfer energy?

Focus Question: How is energy transferred through a medium?

The teacher will present a demonstration to the whole group or ask small groups to conduct investigations following the procedures below:

1. Stretch a slinky across the floor.

2. Quickly push the slinky forward and pull it quickly back to its original position.

3. Describe the motion of the coils in a slinky.

4. Put a piece of tape on one of the coils.

5. Describe the motion of the tape and the motion of the coil.

6. Repeat this motion.

7. Record observations of the movement of the wave through the entire slinky (reflection).

8. Record observations of how the coils interact with one another to produce the wave.

Each student will write a lab report that includes answers to the following questions:

  • How is the energy transferred from one end of the slinky to the other (collision of one coil into another)?
  • What do the coils represent (the particles of matter in a medium)?
  • How is this movement like an earthquake wave?
  • How is this movement like a water wave?
  • How is this movement like a sound wave?

Extension: Have students research the use or effects of waves in real-world situations (e.g., the new technologies used in building earthquake-resistant buildings, in ultrasound technology, in lithotriptors, in sonar, etc.

Constructing: (SCI.I.1.MS.1), (SCI.I.1.MS.5).

Reflecting: (SCI.II.1.MS.3), (SCI.II.1.MS.4), (SCI.II.1.MS.5).

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/Middle School/Benchmark 6
Assessment Example

Using their bodies as particles, students will work in groups of six to eight to prepare demonstrations showing how a mechanical wave can be transmitted from one person to another. Each group will present to the class.

(Give students rubric before activity.)

Scoring Rubric

Criteria

Apprentice

Basic

Meets

Exceeds

Accuracy of demonstration

Interprets some information correctly.

(Particles move too much or not enough to transfer energy.)

Provides an interpretation with some understanding of how the particle motion is related to the transmission of the waveÕs energy.

(Particles move back and forth while their position changes only slightly.)

Provides a correct interpretation of how the vibration of the particles of matter transmits the waveÕs energy.

(Particles move back and forth while their position changes only slightly, causing the wave to move from one end of the chain to the other.)

Provides a thorough and accurate interpretation of a mechanical wave continuing to transfer energy as the source of the vibration causes the particles of matter to continue to vibrate.

(Particles move back and forth while their position changes only slightly. The wave moves from one end of the chain of students to the other and back again.)

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/Middle School/Benchmark 6
Resources

Webliography.
http://mtn.merit.edu/mcf/SCI.IV.4.MS.4.html

DiSpezio, Michael. Awesome Experiments in Force & Motion. Sterling Publications, 1999.

Gartrell, Jack.. Methods of Motion: An Introduction to Mechanics: Book One. NSTA, 1998.

Machine Shop. AIMS.
http://wwws.aimsedu.org/aimscatalog/default.tpl