Strand II
Reflect on the Nature, Adequacy, and Connections Across Scientific Knowledge


Science/Strand II
Content Standard 1
All students will analyze claims for their scientific merit and explain how scientists decide what constitutes scientific knowledge; how science is related to other ways of knowing; how science and technology affect our society; and how people of diverse cultures have contributed to and influenced developments in science. (Reflecting on Scientific Knowledge)


Science/Strand II/Content Standard 1
High School


Science/Strand II/Content Standard 1/High School
Benchmark 1
Justify plans or explanations on a theoretical or empirical basis.

Benchmark Clarification

Students will learn to recognize weaknesses in arguments that are presented as scientific.

Arguments may depend on:

  • intermingled fact and opinion
  • small or incorrect data sampling
  • conclusions not supported by evidence
  • failure to consider alternative hypotheses
  • reliance on celebrity rather than evidence
  • failure to consider limitations of available evidence or scientific knowledge

Key Concept / Real World Context / Resources


Science/Strand II/Content Standard 1/High School/Benchmark 1
Key Concept
Aspects of logical argument, including:

  • Evidence
  • Fact
  • Opinion
  • Assumptions
  • Claims
  • Conclusions
  • Observations


Science/Strand II/Content Standard 1/High School/Benchmark 1
Real World Context
Any in the sections on Using Scientific Knowledge


Science/Strand II/Content Standard 1/High School/Benchmark 1