Science
Strand III
Use Scientific Knowledge from the Life Sciences in Real-World Contexts

 

Science/Strand III
Content Standard 1
All students will apply an understanding of cells to the functioning of multi-cellular organisms; and explain how cells grow, develop, and reproduce. (Cells)

 

Science/Strand III/Content Standard 1
High School

 

Science/Strand III/Content Standard 1/High School
Benchmark 1
Explain how multi-cellular organisms grow, based on how cells grow and reproduce.

Benchmark Clarification

The cell is the basic unit of life and comes from preexisting cells.

Students will use their knowledge of cell theory to:

  • Explain mitosis, meiosis, and differentiation and how they relate to growth in a multi-cellular organism
  • Explain that respiration provides energy for making cell components
  • Describe how the chemical composition of cells originates from outside the cell, such as the products of digested food, which are used as the building blocks by the cell to synthesize more complex chemicals
  • Show how growth of multi-cellular organisms is the result of an increase in the number of cells, not just a change in their size

Key Concept / Real World Context / Instructional Example / Assessment Example / Resources

 

Science/Strand III/Content Standard 1/High School/Benchmark 1
Key Concept
Specialized functions of cells:

  • respiration
  • protein synthesis
  • mitosis
  • meiosis

Basic molecules for cell growth:

  • simple sugars
  • amino acids
  • fatty acids

See Respiration.

See Meiosis.

See Cells.

Basic chemicals, molecules, and atoms:

  • water
  • minerals
  • carbohydrates
  • fats and lipids
  • nucleic acids
  • carbon
  • hydrogen
  • oxygen
  • nitrogen

Cells come only from other cells

 

Science/Strand III/Content Standard 1/High School/Benchmark 1
Real World Context
The growth of plants and animals e.g., onion.

 

Science/Strand III/Content Standard 1/High School/Benchmark 1
Instructional Example

Benchmark Question: How do multi-cellular organisms grow, based on how cells grow and reproduce?

Focus Question: Why are multi-cellular organisms made of many small cells instead of one large cell?

The teacher will give students potato cubes of different sizes (3 cm, 2 cm, 1 cm) to soak in iodine (Lugal’s solution) overnight. The next day they should remove the cubes from the iodine and slice them in half to show how far the iodine entered the cube. Students should write an explanation that associates this movement of iodine with the movement of essential materials moving in and out of a cell. The explanation should include these ideas:

1. The smaller the cell, the more efficient the movement of materials is for the whole cell.

2. The more efficient the movement of materials is for the whole cell, the more efficient the cell becomes.

Constructing: (SCI.I.1.HS.1), (SCI.I.1.HS.2).

Reflecting: (SCI.II.1.HS.1).

 

Science/Strand III/Content Standard 1/High School/Benchmark 1
Assessment Example

The teacher will give students a written description and include a visual (e.g., picture, diagram, etc.) of how size limits the efficiency of cells to move basic molecules for cell growth. Students will write a description that relates how molecules moving in and out of the cell affect the ability of a cell to function.

(Give students rubric before activity.)

Scoring Rubric

Criteria

Apprentice

Basic

Meets

Exceeds

Accuracy of concepts

Explains the concept but in a vague and incomplete way.

Explains some concepts but not the relationship.

Describes the relationship between material movement and cell function.

Describes the relationship with an example or added relevant information.

Completeness of explanation

Explains without supporting details.

Explains with partial supporting details.

Explains with related details from the activity.

Explains with details from the activity and relates to basic molecules.

Effectiveness of visuals

Explains without a visual.

Explains with a visual; missing some components.

Explains with an accurate and complete visual.

Explains with additional examples of visuals.

Correctness of mechanics

Explains with inappropriate vocabulary or grammar.

Explains with partially correct vocabulary and grammar.

Explains with appropriate vocabulary and grammar.

Explains with extended vocabulary and complex sentences.

 

Science/Strand III/Content Standard 1/High School/Benchmark 1
Resources

Webliography.
http://mtn.merit.edu/mcf/SCI.III.1.HS.1.html

Cell photos.
http://www.cellsalive.com/

Mitosis.
http://104/tutorials/celldivision.html

Mitosis pictures.
http://www.biologylessons.sdsu.edu/classes/lab8/index.html