Science
Strand III
Use Scientific Knowledge from the Life Sciences in Real-World Contexts

 

Science/Strand III
Content Standard 3
All students will investigate and explain how characteristics of living things are passed on through generations; explain why organisms within a species are different from one another; and explain how new traits can be established by changing or manipulating genes. (Heredity)

 

Science/Strand III/Content Standard 3
High School

 

Science/Strand III/Content Standard 3/High School
Benchmark 1
Explain how characteristics of living things are passed on from generation to generation.

Benchmark Clarification

Characteristics of living things are passed on from generation to generation by an organism’s genes.

Students will:

  • Diagram how the gene pair in one parent will separate and make sex cells that will combine with a sex cell from the other parent to form offspring
  • Predict the characteristics of possible offspring, given the gene combinations of the parents
  • Trace a trait from generation to generation (e.g., sickle cell anemia)

Key Concept / Real World Context / Instructional Example / Assessment Example / Resources

 

Science/Strand III/Content Standard 3/High School/Benchmark 1
Key Concept
Traits:

  • dominant
  • recessive

Genetic material:

  • gene pair
  • gene combination
  • gene sorting

 

Science/Strand III/Content Standard 3/High School/Benchmark 1
Real World Context
Common contexts:

  • inheritance of a human genetic disease/disorder:
    • sickle cell anemia
  • a family tree focused on certain traits
  • examining animal or plant pedigrees

 

Science/Strand III/Content Standard 3/High School/Benchmark 1
Instructional Example

Benchmark Question: How are characteristics of living things passed on from generation to generation?

Focus Question: How can a trait be traced from generation to generation?

Each pair of students will create a pedigree chart based on a given characteristic (attached and free ear lobes, sickle cell anemia, tongue rolling, etc)*. Students should identify dominant and recessive gene combinations (e.g., aa, Aa, AA, A? [can’t be determined]) for individuals on the chart.

Extension: Predict the possible gene combinations and physical traits for a cross with one of your offspring and a recessive individual.

* Teachers should be aware that this only works for single allele traits (not hair color, eye color, etc.).

Constructing: (SCI.I.1.HS.1), (SCI.I.1.HS.2).

Reflecting: (SCI.II.1.HS.1), (SCI.II.1.HS.3).

 

Science/Strand III/Content Standard 3/High School/Benchmark 1
Assessment Example

The teacher will give a pedigree chart with phenotypes listed for all individuals to each student. Each student will provide the gene combinations for all individuals (e.g., aa, AA, Aa, A?).

(Give students rubric before activity.)

Scoring Rubric

The number of correctly identified gene combinations is the student’s score. Meeting the standard is a score of 80% or more.

 

Science/Strand III/Content Standard 3/High School/Benchmark 1
Resources

Webliography.
http://mtn.merit.edu/mcf/SCI.III.3.HS.1.html

Gerbil genotypes.
http://www.crwh.freeserve.co.uk/gerbils/gerbils.htm