Science
Strand III
Use Scientific Knowledge from the Life Sciences in Real-World Contexts

 

Science/Strand III
Content Standard 3
All students will investigate and explain how characteristics of living things are passed on through generations; explain why organisms within a species are different from one another; and explain how new traits can be established by changing or manipulating genes. (Heredity)

 

Science/Strand III/Content Standard 3
High School

 

Science/Strand III/Content Standard 3/High School
Benchmark 3
Explain how new traits may be established in individuals/populations through changes in genetic material (DNA).

Benchmark Clarification

New traits may be established in individuals/populations through changes in genetic material.

Students will:

  • Show how a mutation in a nucleotide sequence may show up as a change in the trait of the individual
  • Identify mutation-causing factors in the environment
  • Debate the positive and negative effects of human manipulation of the DNA
  • Show how a beneficial trait would become part of the genetic materials in members of a population

Key Concept / Real World Context / Instructional Example / Assessment Example / Resources

 

Science/Strand III/Content Standard 3/High School/Benchmark 3
Key Concept
Genetic changes:

  • variation
  • new gene combinations
  • mutation

See How new traits become established in populations (SCI.III.4.MS.2).

Natural and human-produced sources of mutation:

  • radiation
  • chemical

 

Science/Strand III/Content Standard 3/High School/Benchmark 3
Real World Context
Products of genetic engineering:

  • medical advances
    • insulin
    • cancer drugs
  • agricultural-related products
    • navel oranges
    • new flower colors
    • higher-yield grains
  • effects of natural and man-made contamination

Examples of variations due to new gene combinations:

  • hybrid organisms
  • new plant varieties resulting from multiple sets of genes

 

Science/Strand III/Content Standard 3/High School/Benchmark 3
Instructional Example

Benchmark Question: How are new traits established in individuals/populations through changes in genetic material (DNA)?

Focus Question: What are the positive and negative effects of agricultural chemicals that may cause mutations?

In small groups of four, students will research agricultural chemicals commonly used on apples, cherries, oranges, corn, wheat, and oats. Two students will take a positive position and two students will take a negative position based on the facts they discover in their research. Each student should represent a specific group. Opposing groups could include parents expecting a child, scientists, agricultural companies, farmers, and local governmental and environmental groups.

Students will debate the positive and negative effects of agricultural chemicals that may cause mutations. The debate will be presented to the class as a forum for a state committee on agricultural chemical use.

Note: Role-plays of this type work best if there is a middle-of-the-road group to help the extremes come to some consensus.

Constructing: (SCI.I.1.HS.4), (SCI.I.1.HS.5).

Reflecting: (SCI.II.1.HS.1), (SCI.I.1.HS.5), (SCI.II.1.HS.2), (SCI.II.1.HS.3), (SCI.II.1.HS.4), (SCI.II.1.HS.5), (SCI.II.1.HS.6), (SCI.II.1.HS.7).

 

Science/Strand III/Content Standard 3/High School/Benchmark 3
Assessment Example
Each student will pick from a pile of cards marked pro and con for agricultural chemical use that may cause mutations. Each student will write a position paper based on the card that states the position and supports the position with factual information cited in the debate or found in the research.

(Give students rubric before activity.)

Scoring Rubric

Criteria

Apprentice

Basic

Meets

Exceeds

Clarity of Position

Misstates the card’s position.

States the card’s position with some vagueness.

States the card’s position in a clear manner.

States the card’s position in a convincing manner.

Accuracy of position

States the card’s position in an inaccurate manner.

States the card’s position with one inaccuracy.

States the card’s position in an accurate manner.

States the card’s position in an accurate and thoughtful manner.

Validity of evidence

States no supporting arguments.

States one to two valid supporting arguments.

States three valid supporting arguments.

States more than three valid supporting arguments.

Correctness of mechanics

Explains with inappropriate vocabulary and grammar.

Explains with partially correct vocabulary and grammar.

Explains with appropriate vocabulary and grammar.

Explains with extended vocabulary and exceptional grammar.

 

Science/Strand III/Content Standard 3/High School/Benchmark 3
Resources

Webliography.
http://mtn.merit.edu/mcf/SCI.III.3.HS.3.html

DNA Manipulation.
http://library.thinkquest.org/20830/main.html