Science
Strand IV
Use Scientific Knowledge from the Physical Sciences in Real-World Contexts

 

Science/Strand IV
Content Standard 1
All students will measure and describe the things around us; explain what the world around us is made of; identify and describe forms of energy; and explain how electricity and magnetism interact with matter (Matter and Energy)

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 1
High School

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 1/High School
Benchmark 3
Explain how elements differ in terms of the structural parts and electrical charges of atoms.

Benchmark Clarification

Each element is defined by its unique number of protons, which equals the number of electrons in a neutral atom.

Atoms are comprised of two major regions, a dense, central nucleus and a low density electron cloud.

The nucleus is made of protons and neutrons that comprise most of the mass of the atom. The protons have a positive charge and the neutrons have no charge (are neutral).

The electron cloud surrounds the nucleus and makes up the majority of the volume of the atom. The electron cloud is comprised of electrons that move rapidly around the nucleus. They have very little mass and are negatively charged.

The attractive force between the positively charged nucleus and the negatively charged electrons holds the atom together.

See SCI.IV.3.MS.3 (SCI.IV.3.MS.3).

Students will:

  • Recognize that elements differ in their numbers of protons

Key Concept / Real World Context / Instructional Example / Assessment Example / Resources

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 1/High School/Benchmark 3
Key Concept
Parts of atoms:

  • nucleus
  • electron cloud

Subatomic particles:

  • proton
  • neutron
  • electron

Electrical charges:

  • positive
  • negative
  • neutral

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 1/High School/Benchmark 3
Real World Context
All elements

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 1/High School/Benchmark 3
Instructional Example

Benchmark Question: What makes up the world around us?

Focus Question: How do the atoms in one element differ from those in another element?

After a classroom discussion about atomic numbers and mass numbers and their relationship to subatomic particles, the teacher will guide students in creating a model of an element. The teacher will use students as protons, neutrons, and electrons.

“Neutrons,” labeled with zeros, sit on the floor in the middle of the room. “Protons,” labeled with a positive symbol, stand among the neutrons in the middle of the room. “Electrons,” labeled with a negative symbol, walk in a random pattern around the nucleus (protons and neutrons).

Students will relate the number of protons to the number of electrons in a neutral atom and will explain how the elements differ (different numbers of protons).

After the modeling, students will write a summary of atomic numbers and mass numbers and their relationship to subatomic particles.

Extension: The teacher can name an element, then students can use a periodic table to find relevant information and can assume their roles in the atom.

Constructing: (SCI.I.1.HS.4).

Reflecting: (SCI.II.1.HS.2).

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 1/High School/Benchmark 3
Assessment Example

Students will use diagrams to explain the subatomic structure of an atom of a given element.

(Give students rubric before activity.)

Scoring Rubric

Criteria

Apprentice

Basic

Meets

Exceeds

Correctness of explanation- relative mass

Explains correctly the relative mass of one subatomic particle.

Explains correctly the relative mass of two subatomic particles.

Explains correctly the relative mass of three subatomic particles.

Explains correctly the relative mass of three subatomic particles and describes the relationship to other masses.

Correctness of explanation-charge

Explains correctly the charge of one subatomic particle.

Explains correctly the charge of two subatomic particles.

Explains correctly the charge of three subatomic particles.

Explains correctly the charge of three subatomic particles and describes the electrostatic forces between subatomic particles.

Correctness of explanation — location

Explains correctly the location of one subatomic particle.

Explains correctly the location of two subatomic particles.

Explains correctly the location of three subatomic particles.

Explains correctly the location of three subatomic particles and describes the relative size of the nucleus and the electron cloud.

Accuracy of diagram — atomic structure

Draws correctly one subatomic particle.

Draws correctly two subatomic particles.

Draws correctly three subatomic particles.

Draws correctly three subatomic particles and indicates motion of electron(s)with arrows.

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 1/High School/Benchmark 3
Resources

Webliography.
http://mtn.merit.edu/mcf/SCI.IV.1.HS.3.html

Elements, Atoms, and the Periodic Table.
http://www.biologylessons.sdsu.edu/classes/lab2/map.html

Periodic Table.
http://www.Colorado.EDU/physics/2000/applets/a2.html

Periodic Table of Elements.
http://pearl1.lanl.gov/periodic/default.htm

Structure of the atom.
http://www.nyu.edu/pages/mathmol/textbook/middle_home.html