Science
Strand IV
Use Scientific Knowledge from the Physical Sciences in Real-World Contexts

 

Science/Strand IV
Content Standard 3
All students will describe how things around us move and explain why things move as they do; demonstrate and explain how we control the motions of objects; and relate motion to energy and energy conversions. (Motion of Objects)

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 3
Elementary

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 3/Elementary
Benchmark 5
Manipulate simple mechanical devices and explain how their parts work together.

Benchmark Clarification

Simple mechanical devices usually contain two or more simple machines that work together as a system. Examples of simple mechanical devices include the following: egg beaters, can openers, or pencil sharpeners.

It is important for students to manipulate a variety of devices and to discuss with their peers how the parts work together. Some devices may be taken apart and put back together.

Students will:

  • Operate a simple mechanical device
  • Explain how each part works and how the parts work together

Key Concept / Real World Context / Instructional Example / Assessment Example / Resources

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 3/Elementary/Benchmark 5
Key Concept
Names and uses for parts of machines:

  • inclined planes
  • levers
  • pulleys
  • wheels and axles
  • gears
  • screws
  • wedges

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 3/Elementary/Benchmark 5
Real World Context
Simple mechanical devices such as:

  • bicycles
  • bicycle pumps
  • pulleys
  • faucets
  • clothespins
  • can openers

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 3/Elementary/Benchmark 5
Instructional Example

Benchmark Question: How do we manipulate simple machines and make their parts work together?

Focus Question: How do simple machines work?

Using a hand can opener as an example of a simple mechanical device, the teacher will ask students to identify the simple machines it contains. Students will explain how the simple machines work together to open a can.

Pairs of students will be given a simple mechanical device to manipulate. Examples of simple mechanical devices include bicycles, eggbeaters, and clothespins. Students will identify the simple machine(s) in the machine and discuss how the mechanical device works.

For example: An egg beater contains a wheel and axle, gears, and wedges/blades. It works in the following way:

1. Handle is turned

2. Wheel and axle are engaged

3. Gears turn

4. Wedges/Blades turn

5. Blades cut into and mix ingredients (eggs, flour, sugar, etc) necessary to make cake batter

Each student will select a mechanical device from a collection at the front of the room. He or she will write a list of steps explaining how it works. He or she will present a demonstration speech to the class.

Constructing: (SCI.I.1.E.1), (SCI.I.1.E.3).

Reflecting: (SCI.II.1.E.1), (SCI.II.1E.2), (SCI.II.1.E.4).

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 3/Elementary/Benchmark 5
Assessment Example

The class will read or listen to Shel Silverstein’s “Homework Machine.” Each student will design a simple mechanical device for doing homework that uses at least three different simple machines. Each student will draw and label a diagram of his or her own homework machine. Each student will describe how the machine works in a paragraph, poem, or song.

(Give students rubric before activity.)

Scoring Rubric

Criteria

Apprentice

Basic

Meets

Exceeds

Completeness of design

Designs homework machine with one simple machine.

Designs homework machine with two different simple machines.

Designs homework machine with three different simple machines.

Designs homework machine with more than three simple machines.

Accuracy of explanation

Identifies simple machines incorrectly and provides little or no explanation.

Identifies simple machines correctly but may not be able to explain how they work together.

Identifies simple machines correctly and explains how some of them work together.

Identifies simple machines correctly and explains how all of them work together.

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 3/Elementary/Benchmark 5
Resources

Webliography.
http://mtn.merit.edu/mcf/SCI.IV.3.E.5.html

Constructing Toys & Concepts for K-2. NEW DIRECTIONS UNIT.

http://www.BCMSC.k12.mi.us/

Jennings, Terry. Planes, Gliders, Helicopters & Other Flying Machines. Kingfisher, 1993 .