Science
Strand IV
Use Scientific Knowledge from the Physical Sciences in Real-World Contexts

 

Science/Strand IV
Content Standard 4
All students will describe sounds and sound waves; explain shadows, color, and other light phenomena; measure and describe vibrations and waves; and explain how waves and vibrations transfer energy. (Waves and Vibrations)

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4
Elementary

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/Elementary
Benchmark 2
Explain how sounds are made.

Benchmark Clarification

Sound is caused by vibrating objects or substances.

For example:

  • Tapping a pencil on a desk top
  • Feeling vocal cords while speaking
  • Striking a ruler held over the edge of a desktop
  • Tapping a tuning fork and putting it in a pan of water
  • Stretching a rubber band and plucking it to show vibrations

Students will:

  • Explain that sound is caused by vibrating objects or substances

Key Concept / Real World Context / Instructional Example / Assessment Example / Resources

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/Elementary/Benchmark 2
Key Concept
Vibrations:

  • fast
  • slow
  • large
  • small

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/Elementary/Benchmark 2
Real World Context
Sounds from common sources:

  • musical instruments
  • radio
  • television
  • animal sounds
  • thunder
  • human voices

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/Elementary/Benchmark 2
Instructional Example

Benchmark Question: How are sounds made?

Focus Question: What causes sound?

The teacher will instruct students to place their hands on their throats and make sounds. The class will describe what they hear and feel. The teacher will record the students’ observations on the board. Students will discuss what causes sound vibrations. Students will use common instruments to observe different sound vibrations:

  • Tambourine
  • Guitar
  • Drum
  • Kazoo
  • Rattles

Using a ruler, each student will write a prediction about the relationship between the length of the ruler and the pitch of the sound it will produce. Students will hold the ruler over the edge of the desk. They will tap it lightly. They will listen and observe. They will lengthen or shorten the amount of ruler hanging over the desk and tap the desk lightly again. They will listen and observe again. They will explain what the differences and the similarities in the sounds are. Students will repeat this activity several times with varying lengths and will record their data in a table. Each student will write a paragraph explaining the relationship between the length of the ruler and the pitch of the sound.

Constructing: (SCI.I.1.E.1), (SCI.I.1.E.2), (SCI.I.1.E.5).

Reflecting: (SCI.II.1.E.1), (SCI.II.1E.2).

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/Elementary/Benchmark 2
Assessment Example

Note: It is recommended that the assessment for this Benchmark and Benchmark SCI.IV.4.E.1 be used as a culminating assessment for a sound unit.

Students in groups will be part of a band. They will each construct an instrument. They will play a recognizable tune to an invited audience. Each student will identify their instrument and explain what it can do, demonstrating volume and pitch. In the explanation, they will explain how and where vibrations are made by their instrument After each student has described their instrument, the group will play their song.

Presentations must include an explanation for:

  • How is sound made?
  • What is making the sound?
  • Is it a fast or slow vibration? Why?
  • Is it a big or small vibration? Why?

 

Scoring Rubric

Criteria

Apprentice

Basic

Meets

Exceeds

Effectiveness of construction

Produce a musical sound without constructing an instrument

Construct an instrument that produces a sound

Construct an instrument that is capable of 2 different pitches

Construct an instrument that is capable 3 or more pitches

Accuracy of explanation

Attempt to explain with misconceptions

Explain how the instrument works using the concept of pitch or loudness

Explain how instrument works using the concepts of pitch and loudness

Explain how instrument works using the concepts of pitch and loudness plus explains sounds are produced through vibrations.

Effectiveness of performance

Attempt a tune

Attempt a tune

Perform a recognizable tune

Performs a recognizable tune with movement

Vibration explanation

Identify where sound is coming from, but may not include “vibration”. Misconception between types of vibration and sound.

Identify where sound is coming from including the word “vibration”. Student may have misconception between types of vibration and sounds

Identify where sound is coming from including the word “vibration”. Explain the connection between big or small-fast or slow vibration. (one aspect of the explanation may be incorrect or missing)

Identify where sound is coming from including the word “vibration”. Explain the connection between big or small-fast or slow vibration. (one aspect of the explanation may be incorrect or missing) and offers how the sound the instrument makes can be varied

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/Elementary/Benchmark 2
Resources

Webliography.
http://mtn.merit.edu/mcf/SCI.IV.4.E.2.html

Gibson, Gary. Hearing Sounds. Copper Beach, 1995.

Hewitt, Sally. Hearing Sounds. Children’s Press, 1999.