Science
Strand IV
Use Scientific Knowledge from the Physical Sciences in Real-World Contexts

 

Science/Strand IV
Content Standard 4
All students will describe sounds and sound waves; explain shadows, color, and other light phenomena; measure and describe vibrations and waves; and explain how waves and vibrations transfer energy. (Waves and Vibrations)

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4
Elementary

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/Elementary
Benchmark 4
Explain how shadows are made.

Benchmark Clarification

Light moves outward from a source in straight lines. When an object blocks the light, a shadow forms. The distance the object is from the light source affects the size of the resulting shadow.

Students will:

  • Make a shadow
  • Explain how a shadow was created

Key Concept / Real World Context / Instructional Example / Assessment Example / Resources

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/Elementary/Benchmark 4
Key Concept

  • shadow
  • blocked path
  • surface
  • object
  • light moves outward from source in straight lines

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/Elementary/Benchmark 4
Real World Context
Shadows made on surfaces by putting objects in the path of light from common sources:

  • sunlight
  • light bulbs
  • projectors

Changes in size of shadows due to distance from object

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/Elementary/Benchmark 4
Instructional Example

Benchmark Question: How are shadows made?

Focus Question: How can we create a shadow?

Using a light source (flashlight, lamp, overhead projector), students will test various objects to see how to create a shadow. Each student will draw and label a diagram that shows how the shadow is created, The diagram will include the following labels: a light source, straight lines for light energy, a blocked path, and an object and a shadow.

Extension: Students can experiment with how changes in distance between a light source and objects affect the size of the shadows. Students can experiment with the angle of the light source to the object and its effects on the length of its shadow.

Constructing: (SCI.I.1.E.2), (SCI.I.1.E.3), (SCI.I.1.E.5).

Reflecting: (SCI.II.1.E.1), (SCI.II.1E.2), (SCI.II.1.E.4).

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/Elementary/Benchmark 4
Assessment Example

On a sunny day, students will trace the shadow of an object placed between the Sun and the tracing paper. Each student will write a paragraph that accurately explains how he or she created the shadow. The paragraph will include appropriate terms: a light source, straight lines for light energy, a blocked path, an object and a shadow.

(Give students rubric before activity.)

Scoring Rubric

Criteria

Apprentice

Basic

Meets

Exceeds

Accuracy of Explanation

Provides inaccurate explanation with many misconceptions and no detail.

Gives accurate explanation with one misconception and a few details.

Gives accurate explanation with no misconceptions and some details.

Gives accurate explanation with no misconceptions and many details.

Use of Terms

Uses correctly one or no terms.

Uses correctly two or three terms.

Uses correctly four terms.

Uses correctly all five terms.

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/Elementary/Benchmark 4
Resources

Webliography.
http://mtn.merit.edu/mcf/SCI.IV.4.E.4.html

Jacobs, Frank. Fun With Hand Shadows. DOVER GAMES & PUZZLE ACTIVITY BOOKS. Dover, 1996.

Primary Physics. AIMS.
http://wwws.aimsedu.org/aimscatalog/default.tpl

Zubrowski, Bernie. Shadow Play: Making Pictures With Light & Lenses. BOSTON CHILDRENŐS MUSEUM ACTIVITY BOOK. Morrow, 1995.