Science
Strand IV
Use Scientific Knowledge from the Physical Sciences in Real-World Contexts

 

Science/Strand IV
Content Standard 1
All students will measure and describe the things around us; explain what the world around us is made of; identify and describe forms of energy; and explain how electricity and magnetism interact with matter (Matter and Energy)

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 1
High School

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 1/High School
Benchmark 2
Identify properties of common families of elements.

Benchmark Clarification

When elements are listed in order by the masses of their atoms, the same sequence of properties appears over and over. The intent is not for students to relate this order to electron configuration but to focus on the periodic table and look for recurring patterns.

These patterns are called families, and the elements in each family have common physical properties or characteristics such as state, conductivity, metal, non-metal, and chemical properties (such as reactivity, which is the tendency to combine with atoms of a different substance).

  • Metals are generally solids, and excellent conductors of heat and electricity
  • Non-metals include both solids and gases and are generally poor conductors of heat and electricity
  • A third group of elements possesses properties of both metals and nonmetals

Common properties are found under Real-World Contexts.

Students will:

  • Describe the common physical properties of common families/columns of the periodic table
  • Recognize the characteristics and general categories/ families of elements:

Key Concept / Real World Context / Instructional Example / Assessment Example / Resources

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 1/High School/Benchmark 2
Key Concept
Properties:

  • state
  • reactivity
  • metal/nonmetal
  • conductivity

Tools:

  • various element samples

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 1/High School/Benchmark 2
Real World Context
Highly reactive metals:

  • potassium
  • sodium

Less reactive metals:

  • calcium

Highly reactive nonmetals:

  • chlorine
  • fluorine
  • oxygen

Almost completely non-reactive gases:

  • helium
  • neon

Relationships on the Periodic Table of Elements

 

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 1/High School/Benchmark 2
Instructional Example

Benchmark Question: How do we describe the things around us?

Focus Question: How are elements classified?

In this strategy, students will classify elements according to their physical and chemical properties.

Students will construct a table using columns with the following headings: name of element, state, luster, conductivity, reaction with water, and reaction with acid.

The teacher will give groups of two to four students eight to ten samples of the same identified elements. Students will examine each sample for the listed properties and will record their observations in the table. Small groups will conduct tests for conductivity, reaction with water, and reaction with acid. Students will respond with “high,” “ low,” or “no.” Groups will compare their results to the element’s position on the periodic table and identify any patterns of organization. They will conclude by answering the question, “How is the periodic table organized?” They will share their findings with the class.

Note: Use a battery powered conductivity tester from a science supply catalog.

Constructing: (SCI.I.1.HS.2), (SCI.I.1.HS.5).

Reflecting: (SCI.II.1.HS.1).

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 1/High School/Benchmark 2
Assessment Example

Given an element and a periodic table, students will predict the properties they would expect the element to have and explain why. Possible properties include the following: reactivity, state, metal, nonmetal, conductivity.

(Give students rubric before activity.)

Scoring Rubric

Criteria

Apprentice

Basic

Meets

Exceeds

Prediction of properties

Identifies correctly one property.

Identifies correctly two properties.

Identifies correctly three properties.

Identifies correctly four or more properties.

Reasons for prediction

Gives the correct reason for one property.

Gives the correct reason for two properties.

Gives the correct reason for three properties.

Gives the correct reason for four or more properties.

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 1/High School/Benchmark 2
Resources

Webliography.
http://mtn.merit.edu/mcf/SCI.IV.1.HS.2.html

Safety recommendations.
http://www.flinnsci.com/