Science
Strand IV
Use Scientific Knowledge from the Physical Sciences in Real-World Contexts

 

Science/Strand IV
Content Standard 2
All students will investigate, describe, and analyze ways in which matter changes; describe how living things and human technology change matter and transform energy; explain how visible changes in matter are related to atoms and molecules; and how changes in matter are related to changes in energy. (Changes in Matter)

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 2
High School

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 2/High School
Benchmark 5
Explain changes in matter and energy involving heat transfer.

Benchmark Clarification

Heat is a measure of the total kinetic energy of the molecules in a sample.

Heat energy flows from a warmer region to a cooler region by three methods:

  • Conduction (direct contact)
  • Convection (movement of matter in a fluid)
  • Radiation (electromagnetic waves)

Conductors are materials that allow heat to flow through easily; insulators are materials that resist the flow of heat.

As heat is transferred to an object, its temperature, volume, and pressure increase, resulting in expansion (thermal expansion).

Within any real-world system, energy is not perfectly transformed from one form to another. As humans attempt to harness energy to accomplish tasks, they can never have a completely efficient transfer without a conversion of energy to an undesired form (most often heat).

Students will:

  • Explain three methods for heat energy flowing from a warmer region to a cooler region

Key Concept / Real World Context / Instructional Example / Assessment Example / Resources

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 2/High School/Benchmark 5
Key Concept
Mechanisms of heat transfer:

  • convection
  • conduction
  • radiation

Conservation of energy, efficiency

Changes in matter related to heat transfer

Changes in temperature, volume, pressure

Thermal expansion

See Thermal expansion (SCI.IV.2.MS.1).

See Convection (SCI.V.3.HS.3).

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 2/High School/Benchmark 5
Real World Context

  • convection currents
  • lake turnover
  • wind
  • hot frying pans
  • heating and cooling buildings
  • heat lamps
  • sunlight heating the Earth
  • greenhouse effect
  • fires for warming

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 2/High School/Benchmark 5
Instructional Example

Benchmark Question: How are changes in matter related to changes in energy?

Focus Question: How do matter and energy change as a result of heat transfer?

Following a teacher-led discussion of the three methods of heat transfer, students will work in small lab groups and will investigate the three methods of heat transfer by designing and constructing a “box” that minimizes the loss of thermal energy by conduction, convection, and radiation.

1. Using materials of their choice, groups of students will construct boxes of given dimensions (30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm). Each box must hold an aluminum soda can that in turn holds 100 ml of hot water.

2. Groups will write predictions of how their boxes will minimize thermal energy loss due to conduction, convection, and radiation.

3. The teacher will place 100 ml of hot water into each can.

4. Each group will measure and record its temperature.

5. Groups will place their can of hot water into their box.

6. The boxes should be left standing for thirty minutes.

7. Groups will open their boxes and measure and record the new temperature of the water.

8. Each group will evaluate the success of their project by comparing the heat loss in their box to that of others’ boxes.

9. Groups will list three ways they would improve their design based on the results of the tests.

10. Groups will explain the loss of heat in their box by applying the three different methods of heat transfer through writing and drawing.

Constructing: (SCI.I.1.HS.5).

Reflecting: (SCI.II.1HS.3).

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 2/High School/Benchmark 5
Assessment Example

Students will explain the three methods of heat transfer and describe an example of each method from daily life.

(Give students rubric before activity.)

Scoring Rubric

Criteria

Apprentice

Basic

Meets

Exceeds

Accuracy of explanation

Explains accurately one method of heat transfer.

Explains accurately two methods of heat transfer.

Explains accurately three methods of heat transfer.

Explains accurately three methods of heat transfer and compares them to each other.

Accuracy of description

Describes no example from daily life.

Describes accurately one example from daily life.

Describes accurately two examples from daily life.

Describes accurately three examples from daily life.

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 2/High School/Benchmark 5
Resources

Webliography.
http://mtn.merit.edu/mcf/SCI.IV.2.HS.4.html

Construct-a-Glove. NSTA Press, 2000.
http://www.nsta.org/

Construct-a-Greenhouse. NSTA Press, 2000.
http://www.nsta.org/