Science
Strand IV
Use Scientific Knowledge from the Physical Sciences in Real-World Contexts

 

Science/Strand IV
Content Standard 3
All students will describe how things around us move and explain why things move as they do; demonstrate and explain how we control the motions of objects; and relate motion to energy and energy conversions. (Motion of Objects)

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 3
High School

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 3/High School
Benchmark 2
Explain energy conversions in moving objects and machines.

Benchmark Clarification

Changes in the speed of an object or its distance from the Earth always involve energy transformation of some type (e.g., heat, gravitational potential energy, chemical potential energy, electrical, spring potential energy, and radiation) to kinetic energy/ energy of motion.

Machines are energy-conversion devices. No machine is one hundred percent efficient; some energy is transformed into heat as a result of friction. Efficiency here is defined as a ratio of work output over work input and expressed as a percentage.

Students will:

  • Identify an example of energy conversion taking place
  • Analyze the types of energy conversions taking place in a machine

Key Concept / Real World Context / Instructional Example / Assessment Example / Resources

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 3/High School/Benchmark 2
Key Concept
Types of energy:

  • electrical energy
  • kinetic energy
  • gravitational potential energy
  • potential energy in spring
  • chemical potential energy
  • heat energy
  • radiation
  • efficiency

See Energy transformations (SCI.IV.2.MS.4).

See Conservation of energy (SCI.IV.2.HS.4).

See Energy in physical and chemical changes (SCI.IV.2.HS.4).

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 3/High School/Benchmark 2
Real World Context
Simple and complex machines:

  • roller coasters
  • swings
  • pendulums
  • elevators
  • automobiles
  • fans
  • motors

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 3/High School/Benchmark 2
Instructional Example

Benchmark Question: How is motion related to energy and energy conversions?

Focus Question: How do machines convert energy?

The teacher will demonstrate items such as a wind-up toy, glow stick, or a battery-operated fan.

Using a cooperative learning technique such as Think-Pair-Share, groups will identify in writing the forms of energy and the energy transfers used in the items the teacher demonstrated. Students then will pair up, come to a consensus, and share/discuss their ideas with the class.

Constructing: (SCI.I.1.HS.2), (SCI.I.1.HS.4), (SCI.I.1.HS.5).

Reflecting: (SCI.II.1.HS.1).

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 3/High School/Benchmark 2
Assessment Example

Students will select a complex machine and create a flow chart or other graphic organizer to depict the forms of energy and energy transformations in its operation.

(Give students rubric before activity.)

Scoring Rubric

Criteria

Apprentice

Basic

Meets

Exceeds

Correctness of identification- forms of energy

Identifies correctly one form of energy present.

Identifies correctly two forms of energy present.

Identifies correctly three forms of energy present.

Identifies correctly four or more forms of energy present.

Correctness of identification -energy transformations

Identifies correctly one energy transformation.

Identifies correctly two energy transformations.

Identifies correctly three energy transformations.

Identifies correctly four or more energy transformations.

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 3/High School/Benchmark 2
Resources

Webliography.
http://mtn.merit.edu/mcf/SCI.IV.3.HS.2.html

Energy transformations on a roller coaster.
http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/mmedia/energy/ce.html

Roller coaster activity.
http://www.col-ed.org/cur/sci/sci193.txt