Science
Strand IV
Use Scientific Knowledge from the Physical Sciences in Real-World Contexts

 

Science/Strand IV
Content Standard 4
All students will describe sounds and sound waves; explain shadows, color, and other light phenomena; measure and describe vibrations and waves; and explain how waves and vibrations transfer energy. (Waves and Vibrations)

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4
High School

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/High School
Benchmark 1
Relate characteristics of sounds that we hear to properties of sound waves.

Benchmark Clarification

We detect frequency as pitch, hearing high-frequency waves as high-pitched sounds. We detect amplitude as loudness (volume), hearing larger-amplitude waves as louder sounds.

The velocity of sound waves depends on the medium (material) through which the waves travel. Sound results from the motion of particles (i.e., sound waves are mechanical waves as sound energy traveling through a medium).

Students will:

  • Describe sound waves in terms of frequency and amplitude
  • Compare sound waves in terms of frequency and amplitude

Key Concept / Real World Context / Instructional Example / Assessment Example / Resources

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/High School/Benchmark 1
Key Concept
Properties of sounds:

  • pitch
  • volume

Characteristics of sound waves:

  • frequency
  • amplitude
  • velocity

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/High School/Benchmark 1
Real World Context
Common sounds that vary in pitch and volume

See (SCI.IV.4.E.1).

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/High School/Benchmark 1
Instructional Example

Benchmark Question: How can we describe sound?

Focus Question: How are the properties of sound waves related to the characteristics of sound?

Students will listen to a musician (or musicians) produce sounds on various instruments.

The teacher will use a ruler to demonstrate variations in frequency (pitch). Placing a ruler flat on a desk so a portion of the ruler extends past the edge of the desktop, the teacher will use a finger to depress and release the end of the ruler while students listen for the effect. The teacher then will increase and/or decrease the amount by which the ruler extends past the edge of the desktop and repeat the demonstration.

After a teacher-led class discussion, students will explain the characteristics of sound waves: frequency, amplitude, velocity, pitch, and volume. Students then will construct a musical instrument in small groups or individually. Each instrument will be demonstrated and students will discuss/share characteristics of sound waves.

Constructing: (SCI.I.1.HS.2).

Reflecting: (SCI.II.1HS.3).

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/High School/Benchmark 1
Assessment Example

Students will perform a variety of pitches and volumes to an audience with a constructed instrument. Students will present an explanation of how these sounds are produced in terms of the characteristics of sound (frequency, amplitude, and velocity).

(Give students rubric before activity.)

Scoring Rubric

Criteria

Apprentice

Basic

Meets

Exceeds

Effectiveness of construction

Constructs a musical instrument that produces one pitch with high and low volume.

Constructs a musical instrument that produces two pitches with high and low volume.

Constructs a musical instrument that produces at least three different pitches with high and low volume.

Constructs a musical instrument that produces at least three pitches with various sounds and plays a recognizable tune.

Accuracy of explanation

Describes a characteristic of sound with one property.

Describes two characteristics of sound with one property.

Describes clearly each characteristic of sound in terms of pitch and volume.

Explains a sheet of music in terms of the characteristics and properties of sound.

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/High School/Benchmark 1
Resources

Webliography.
http://mtn.merit.edu/mcf/SCI.IV.4.HS.1.html

Car horns.
http://www.eecs.umich.edu/mathscience/funexperiments/agesubject/lessons/beakman/doppler.html

Interactive Sound Lab.
http://library.advanced.org/19537/java/Beats.html