Science
Strand IV
Use Scientific Knowledge from the Physical Sciences in Real-World Contexts

 

Science/Strand IV
Content Standard 4
All students will describe sounds and sound waves; explain shadows, color, and other light phenomena; measure and describe vibrations and waves; and explain how waves and vibrations transfer energy. (Waves and Vibrations)

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4
High School

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/High School
Benchmark 3
Describe waves in terms of their properties.

Benchmark Clarification

Mechanical waves (sound, ultrasound, water wave, shock wave) require a medium to travel through.

Electromagnetic waves are a form of energy that moves at the speed of light and does not require a medium to travel. Various types of electromagnetic waves (e.g., radio, microwave, and light) differ by their wavelength and frequency.

Waves have special properties:

Students will:

  • Explain that waves transfer energy from one place to another
  • Describe the properties of waves
  • Recognize the units used to measure wave properties (See Key Concepts)

Key Concept / Real World Context / Instructional Example / Assessment Example / Resources

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/High School/Benchmark 3
Key Concept
Mechanical waves, electromagnetic waves

See (SCI.IV.4.HS.4).

Colors of light

Properties of waves:

  • frequency
  • amplitude
  • wavelength
  • wave velocity
  • energy

Units of measurement:

  • hertz or cycles per second
  • micrometers
  • meters
  • meters per second

Tools for making spectra:

  • prism
  • diffraction grating

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/High School/Benchmark 3
Real World Context
Examples of mechanical and electromagnetic waves

Colors of light, frequencies of radio and TV transmission

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/High School/Benchmark 3
Instructional Example

Benchmark Question: How can we describe and measure vibrations and waves?

Focus Question: What are the properties of waves?

After a brief discussion about waves, students working in small groups will produce waves using a coiled phone cord or Slinky. Students will place the phone cord on the floor and anchor one end of the phone cord and then oscillate the other end back and forth across the floor. Students will observe the repeating patterns of the waves.

Students then will experiment to increase the height and the number of waves in the cord. Students will write down their observations and explanations and share them with the class. At the conclusion of the activity, the teacher will lead a discussion about frequency, amplitude, wavelength, and energy and relate them to the observations of the phone cord. In their journals, students will reflect on how these properties are related.

Constructing: (SCI.I.1.HS.1), (SCI.I.1.HS.2).

Reflecting: (SCI.II.1HS.3).

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/High School/Benchmark 3
Assessment Example

Each student will describe the properties of waves by writing an essay or by creating a labeled diagram. Properties may include frequency, amplitude, wavelength, energy.

(Give students rubric before activity.)

Scoring Rubric

Criteria

Apprentice

Basic

Meets

Exceeds

Correctness of identification

Identifies correctly one to two properties of waves.

Identifies correctly three properties of waves.

Identifies correctly four properties of waves.

Identifies correctly five or more properties of waves by adding wave velocity or any other property.

Accuracy of description

Describes accurately one to two properties of waves.

Describes accurately three properties of waves.

Describes accurately four properties of waves.

Describes accurately five or more properties of waves.

 

Science/Strand IV/Content Standard 4/High School/Benchmark 3
Resources

Webliography.
http://mtn.merit.edu/mcf/SCI.IV.4.HS.3.html

Interactive Sound Lab.
http://library.advanced.org/19537/java/Beats.html

Teacher's Guide.
http://imagers.gsfc.nasa.gov/teachersite/index.html